1. Physics of color

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In 1676, Sir Isaac Newton via trihedral prism spread white sunlight on the color spectrum. This range contains all the colors except for the purple. Newton put his experience as follows: sunlight is passed through a narrow slit and fall on the prism. The prism beam of white stratified into separate spectral colors. Decomposition so it is then sent to the screen where the image appears spectrum. Continuous color tape began with red and in orange, yellow, green, blue, purple ended. If this image is then passed through a converging lens, the connection of all the colors again gave a white color. These colors are derived from the sun’s rays using refractive index. There are other physical paths color formation, for example, process-related interference, diffraction, polarization and fluorescence.

If we divide the spectrum into two parts, for example – in the red-orange-yellow and green-blue-violet, and will collect each of these groups a special lens, the result will be two mixed colors, a mixture which, in turn, give us white . Two colors that combine to give the white color are called complementary colors. If we remove from the spectrum of a single color, such as green, and through the lens will collect the remaining colors – red, orange, yellow, blue and purple – that we received mixed color will be red, the color that is complementary to our remote green. If we remove the yellow color – the remaining colors – red, orange, green, blue and purple – will give us the color purple, the color that is complementary to the yellow. Each color is optional with respect to the mixture of all the other colors of the spectrum. In mixed colors we can not see its individual components. In this respect, it differs from musical eye ear that can select any of the chord sounds. Different colors are light waves, which are a particular kind of electromagnetic energy.

The human eye can only perceive the light at a wavelength of 400 to 700 nanometers:

1 micron or 1 μ = 1/1000 mm = 1/1 000 000 m. 1 nanometer or 1 mμ = 1/1 000 000 mm.

The wavelength corresponding to the individual colors of the spectrum and the corresponding frequency (the number of oscillations per second) for each of the prismatic colors have the following characteristics:

Color – The wavelength in mμ (frequency oscillations per second)

Red – 800 … 650 (400 … 470 billion.)
Orange – 640 … 590 (470 … 520 billion.)
Yellow – 580 … 550 (520 … 590 billion.)
Green – 530 … 490 (590 … 650 billion.)
Blue – 480 … 460 (650 … 700 billion.)
Blue – 450 … 440 (700 … 760 billion.)
Purple – 430 … 390 (760 … 800 billion.)

The frequency ratio and the red purple color approximately equal to 1: 2, i.e. is the same as in the musical octave.

Every color of the spectrum is characterized by its wavelength, which means it can be exactly specified wavelength or frequency. Light waves themselves have no color. The color appears only in the perception of these waves to the human eye and brain. How did he recognize these waves so far not yet fully known. We only know that different colors result from quantitative differences sensitivity.

It remains to investigate the important question of the Hull color items. If we, for example, put a filter that transmits red, and a filter that transmits green, in front of the arc lamp, both filters together will give the black color or darkness. The red color absorbs all the rays of the spectrum, except for the rays in the range that corresponds to the color red and the green filter retains all colors except green. so do not miss a single beam and we get darkness. Absorbed in a physical experiment, the colors are also called deductible.

Color objects occurs mainly in the process of absorption of the waves. Red vessel looks red because it absorbs all the other colors of the light beam and reflects only the red. When we say, “This cup red”, we actually mean that the molecular composition of the surface of the cup is such that it absorbs all light rays except red. The cup itself has no color, the color is created by its light. If the red paper (surface absorbs all the rays except red) is illuminated by a green light, the paper seems to us black because green contains no rays corresponding to the color red, which could be reflected in our paper. All paintings are paint pigment or real. This absorbent (absorbing) ink, and when mixed should be guided by the rules of deduction. When additional ink or combinations containing the three primary colors – yellow, red and blue – are mixed in certain proportions, the result is black, while the analogous mixture nonreal colors obtained Newtonian experiment prism results in a white color, because there is association of colors based on the principle of addition, instead of subtraction.