12. The spatial effects of color

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The spatial effects of color may depend on various components. In the color there are forces capable of detecting depth. This is due to the contrast of light and dark, and the possibilities for changing the color saturation and distribution. In addition, changes in the spatial sensations can be achieved with the help of various diagonals and intersections.

When the six colors – yellow, orange, red, purple, blue and green on a black background are located next to each other without intervals, it is quite clearly shows that the bright yellow color appears acting and purple plunges into the depths of a black background. Other colors form the intermediate stage between yellow and purple. When using a white background is changing the impression of depth. Purple pushed a white background and seems to be projecting forward, while yellow is held white as a “close and kin.” These observations prove that to assess the depth of experience, the overall color of the background is just as important as a separate color. Here again faced with the relativity of color effects, which has already been discussed in the section devoted to the physical reality of color and color action, simultaneous contrast and color expression. Back in 1915 I conducted a lot of research related to the identification of opportunities to identify the color depth of the space, as a result of which I came to the conclusion that the six primary colors on a black background, in accordance with the stages of manifestation of their depth correspond to the proportions of the golden section. Golden Section principle is based on the fact that most small segment refers to the largest, as the largest of their total amount. If the distance AB is divided on the basis of the golden section point C, this means that the SS belongs to the NE as binding to AB. In the field of color, this means the following: if we put an orange color between yellow and red, each of which has its own degree of depth, the difference between the depth of yellow-orange and orange-red to match against the “lesser” to “more.” The same attitude of “smaller” to “more” exists between the yellow-orange-red and red-orange-blue. The same proportions of the golden section are yellow-red and red-purple color, like yellow-green and green-blue.

Yellow, red and orange and blue on a black background have the following picture of burial: yellow heavily favored forward, to a lesser extent red and blue seems almost as deep as black. On a white background there is the opposite impression: blue heavily favored forward, red-orange remains almost on the spot and yellow only slightly pushed forward. The relationship between the depth of yellow and red-orange, red-orange and blue correspond to the relation “greater than” to “less.”

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All the bright colors on a black background will play forward in accordance with the degree of their lordship. On a white background seems to be the opposite: light colors remain at the level of the white background and dark gradually protrude forward.

As for the cold and warm colors of the same lightness, the warm colors will play forward, and strive in the cold depths. If found contrast light and dark, the sense of depth or will increase due to the color or neutralized, or to act in reverse. Equally bright blue-green and red-orange behave on a black background as follows: – red-orange stands forward, and blue-green leaves deep.

If the red-orange is bleached, then he stepped forward even more. If you lighten up a little blue-green, it will produce the same impression of depth as the red-orange, and if it will be brightened even more, then stepped forward, and red-orange, on the contrary, step back.

Contrast saturation causes these sensations in the perception of color: bright colors will play forward compared to the same light, but obtuse flowers. As soon as this contrast is added the contrast of light and dark or cold and warm, the impression of depth is changed again. Contrast distribution or size contrast color planes plays an important role in creating the impression of depth. When a large red surface there is a small yellow spot, the red color becomes a background and yellow in this case is the forward. If we increase the area occupied by the yellow color, and reduce the occupied red, then there may come a time when yellow will play a more significant role than the red. Yellow color may be red background and displace forward.

If we wanted to consider all possible options in terms of changing impressions about the depth of color, it would not give us any confidence in the proper establishment of the spatial balance of each color composition. You can count on the personal taste of the artist and thin his goals.

In order to observe the spatial diagonals of capabilities, you need to yellow, red and orange and blue arranged on a black and white background in two diagonal directions, in one case – the left and the other – from right to left. Problems of creating beautiful illusions of depth can be studied by comparing, for example, yellow and blue boxes in all kinds of vertical and horizontal positions, intersections, and overlays, using the white and black background. If the color want to be judged as a force capable of providing scenic depth, it needs to exercise his vision in the perception of possibilities of color in building space … “Do not make the windows, do not make holes in the film” – said Coro, urging artists to be attentive to the overall integrity of pictorial space.

Claude Lorrain

Particularly strong sense of the depth of the picture can be achieved using the interaction of color, horizontal and vertical directions and spatial plans of the composition together. Most often, the picture space is constructed by two, three or more plans. For example, Claude Lorrain space of its landscapes builds on the use of five plans. But the most common version of the two-dimensional, pictorial space transmission is based on two plans.