In 1928, one art school, I conducted classes on the harmony of color combinations. To do this, the students had to use whatever size circles and sectors. At the same time, I have not given them any specific color harmony. After about twenty minutes, the students began to worry too much. I asked them what was the problem, and the answer was: “In our opinion, given the combination you are not harmonious. We find them confusing and unpleasant. ”
“Well, – I said – let each of you give those combinations of colors which it is pleasant and harmonious.”
Class immediately calmed down, and all have sought to prove to me that my color combinations were wrong.
An hour filled with sheets lay on the floor for general viewing. Each of the students did on his sheet of several emotional close one to the other combinations. But all work very different from each other. Students were surprised to recognize that each of them has their own idea of harmonious color combinations. Following a wild surmise, I took one of the sheets and asked one of the students: “It’s your job?” “Yes,” – she said. I’m guessing the authors of all the remaining sheets and distributed them. I note that during the execution of this task I was not in class, so I could not know what to do each of the students. Students then had to keep the sheets in front of him so that I could both see their faces painted and their color combinations. During the initial bewilderment arose fun because all the students noticed the striking similarity between the expression on their faces and they created color combinations. I finished the lesson with the words: “The combination of colors, created in harmony as each of you, are your subjective color perception. This is – subjective colors. ”
This was the first experience in the following years was followed by many others. In order for this practice was a success, especially in the students, it is necessary to develop a general sensitivity to color. Without prior intensive study possibilities of color and practical training with a brush and paints can not obtain any reliable results.
Bonus with the identification of the subjective color preferences should be approached with great caution. At the beginning of training is necessary to avoid any hint that the “subjective color” can reveal the character or mood, thinking and feelings of students. Many people do not want anyone to show what they really are. People working professionally with color, often with great anguish find their “subjective version.” Sometimes, the practice in this work, only to realize their wishes – they write complementary colors, or colors, interesting from the point of view of fashion, rather than to reflect the self.
Color combinations can be extremely minimal and consist of two or three colors: light blue, medium gray, white and black or dark brown, light brown, red and black, or yellow-green, yellow and black and brown. They might also have a very extensive color gamut, including yellow, red, blue in their different variations and degrees of saturation, or two or more solid colors in their various manifestations tone.
Among people with disabilities, or vice versa, with the largest possible color perception contains all the intermediate color gradations, which you can imagine, there are subjective combinations in which one color – red, yellow, blue or purple – prevails in quantitative terms, as a result of that we are tempted to say that this or that artist sees the world in red, yellow or blue. This creates the impression that a particular artist sees everything through colored glasses, with quite possibly, his thoughts and feelings also painted accordingly.
In my research on the study of subjective color perception, I discovered that not only the selection and combination of colors, but the color and size of spots and smears orientation can be very specific to a particular artist. Some of them prefer vertical strokes, others emphasize the horizontal and diagonal. Accordingly, for example, animals become stressed shape narrow and vertical, or vice versa, and a broad horizontal. Selecting the direction of the stroke reveals the nature of thought and expression of feelings. How, for example, the nature of hairstyles can say a lot. As hair can fit snugly to the head, lying rhythmic waves, or be tousled and messy strands fall, and color stains can be sharply defined or “diffuse”, merging, or obscure and disordered. Artists working in the latter manner, were not made for a simple and clear thinking. They are very cordial and dreamy. If we want to find an explanation for the subjective color combinations, we must be attentive to the smallest features, not just the bigger and the most common characteristics of color and color patches. If you wish to understand the artist’s subjective orientation is important, of course, not only the color of his hair, eyes and skin – the most significant here is the “aura” of the individual.
Now a few small examples to illustrate the differences in color preferences. Blonde, blue-eyed schoolgirl with pink skin tend to work very pure colors and often a large number of clearly distinguishable colors. The main contrast to them is the color contrast. Depending on the vitality of people this type of colors of their works can be paler and brighter. People with black hair, dark skin and dark brown eyes are a different type. The main role assigned in all combinations of black color and pure colors are accompanied by black. The dark tones and noisy bubbles color strength. Schoolgirl with red hair and pink skin preferred to work very intense colors. Her subjective colors were yellow, red and blue in their contrasting sound. Accordingly, I gave her an assignment to write a bunch of flowers. It was obvious that it was her very happy. I advised her to restrict the topics is coincident in its mood with its subjective preferences of color, because these colors can be felt and experienced by it in full measure. This intense experience is the decisive precondition for creative work.
The Artists must come from its subjective predisposition to certain colors and forms. For education in general and artistic education in particular, knowledge of the subjective preferences of color is important. The natural method of education is to give every child the opportunity to organically develop their individuality. A prerequisite for this is the ability to recognize an educator skills and abilities of their students. Subjective color preferences open the way to the knowledge of the individual characteristics of thinking, feeling and behavior of the student. Help him find the only inherent attraction to a particular color or shape, then help him discover himself. At first, the difficulties may seem insurmountable. But we need to trust the spiritual principle inherent in every person!
The teacher should help just as if slightly, very natural, but always with love. Just as a gardener creates the best conditions for your plants, and the teacher should create favorable conditions for the child’s spiritual and physical development. And it will grow according to their own peculiar ideas and his forces. In art education has two goals: to develop and strengthen individual creative abilities of students and at the same time give a general knowledge of the objective laws of work on shape and color, complementing all this studying nature. Individual abilities will be developed and strengthened if the job will take into account the subjective individual preferences of the students to color and shape.
Type light blondes are similar topics such as Spring, kindergarten, Epiphany, the Feast of Flowers. Morning in the garden, etc. Its full-scale studies need to be colorful and without color contrasts of light and dark. For students of the dark type would be appropriate to offer topics such as Night Light in a dark space, Autumn storm Negro chapel, funeral, grief, etc. Works with nature she should perform a soft charcoal and white paint, without geometric outlines. Thus, different types of students can not be put as a model the same colors and shapes. The need for different tasks, providing a manifestation of the subjective inclinations of the students, so that they were able to find their correct solution. If the student is invited to an “alien” theme to it, it will try to solve it by thinking, but that he may not have enough knowledge and therefore the results are largely uncertain. Once students are able to recognize their own preferences, they can hold classes for elementary exercises for the development of the seven color contrasts, and then classes on the contrast of forms, and here too, it turns out that for some the development of one of contrasts will come easily without effort, and others – tough and difficult. It is essential that every student got an idea about the basic, fundamental laws in the mastery of color. He can accept or reject them, but he will get a natural stimulus for new creative searches.
In the study of contrasts, it is advisable to carry out analyzes of good works old and new masters. Students will be extremely helpful if they will analyze works, pleasing and interests them directly. Pictures selected them individually will give them a kind of teachers, with pupils will be clear what they are attracted to what “family” belong, on what and how their “relatives”. Some students will attract artists working on the contrasts of light and shadow, the other – the master of colors, shapes and architectonic compositions. And some of them intrigue bright color Expressionists or the pointlessness tashists.
The essence of man can rarely be fully understood on the basis of their preferred color combinations; Sometimes the most important thing here is the physical side, sometimes mind, sometimes the spiritual life, and sometimes a combination of all at once. The emphasis here will vary depending on the individual temperament and character of the person. Teachers, doctors and lawyers could be drawn from a lot of valuable observations of the subjective color preferences of their wards.
Subjective color of one of the students were light purple, light blue, blue-gray, yellow, white and black admixture. His power base, his “tone” is defined by these hard, cold and somewhat fragile flowers. When he discussed with me the choice of profession, I told him that he has a natural predisposition to the metal, mainly to silver and glass. “Maybe you’re right, but I decided to become a carpenter,” – he said. Later, he really engaged in the design and modern furniture, among other things, created the first modern, but the steel chair. Eventually he became a very famous architect for the design of buildings of glass and concrete.
Subjective color combinations and compositions of another student consisted of orange and brown tones, all kinds of ocher, red-brown and black. Green, blue, purple and gray completely absent in his works. When I asked him about his future career, he confidently said: “I am a carpenter.” He instinctively felt his natural vocation.
Subjective color preferences of the third pupil consisted of sonorous light purple, yellow and golden-brown tone. In his works, the colors sound like a luminous aura, revealing the student’s ability to high concentration. Warm luminous yellow color, rolling in light purple, suggests his inclination to religious outlook. And it really became riznichnym in one large church and besides one of the best engravers of gold and silver. A person can express himself to the maximum, only engaging in organic matter close to him, and besides having the necessary powers for this purpose. It should be noted that despite the fact that I have diligently collected opinions on the interpretation I have proposed the color of the seasons, I have never yet found a man who would be incorrect to identify each of these times. It convinced me that in addition to the individual judgments man is capable of a more objective approach to the phenomenon, which causes him to acknowledge the existence of something universally valid, and takes precedence over individual preferences. This objective judgment is undoubtedly the highest expression of reason. That is why we need a well-disciplined thinking and knowledge of coloristic color options. Because it helps to avoid the one-sidedness and error in the assessment of color, dictated only by our taste, and if the study will find in the world of color objectively universally valid laws, our responsibility is to study them.
Among the artists can be seen three different types of attitude to the problems of color.
The first type is characteristic of artists “imitators” who do not seek their own colors, but rather repeat the color of their teachers or other artists.
The second are “originals” who write the way it tells them personal taste. They assemble in accordance with their ideas of form and color. And no matter what the theme of their paintings, their color expression will always be the same. Leonardo da Vinci about this group of artists in his “Treatise on Painting” wrote: “How ridiculous and absurd those artists who give figures small heads only because of their own small.” That Leonardo said here proportioning, applicable to the field of color.
The third type of relationship to the color represents a group of “generalists”, artists working with color on the basis of his knowledge of the objective laws. In addition, each of their composition is characterized by its own color scheme, The correlation with the chosen theme. It is clear that this group of artists is not numerous, because each of them has in his own subjective color perception the entire spectrum of the color wheel, and it happens often. In addition, the artists “generalists” should have great knowledge and have a broad philosophical outlook.
If a subjective predisposition to color says about the inner world of man, then at the same time and his way of thinking, feelings and actions. Inside a warehouse man, his internal structure is reflected in his personal color perception. I believe that this is due to the fact that the breaking and filtering of white light passes through the electromagnetic vibrations of the human psycho-physical sphere. When a person dies, it pales. His face and body lose color in the fading light of his life. Spiritless matter of a dead body does not have a color emission. Whoever wants to interpret the subjective color display, should not dwell only on the assessment of the different color characteristics and their self-expression. The most important thing is the overall tone of the whole, then the location of each color in relation to the other, their movement, brightness, lightness or, conversely, muted, proportion, structure and rhythms of color construction.
People who work professionally with color, often tend to be guided by their own preferences with regard to color. This may cause misunderstandings and disputes, especially in those cases where a subjective opinion collides with another. To address the many challenges must be an objective reality, which is more important than subjective preferences. Thus, the butcher can be issued light green and blue-green tones to different meats seemed more fresh and red. Shops confectionery seem more elegant in atmosphere, painted in light orange, pink and white color with black patches, arousing a desire to buy goodies. But if a commercial designer decided to create packaging for coffee, decorated with yellow and white stripes, or package of spaghetti with blue peas, its project would be rejected because the forms and colors do not fit the theme.
Gardeners also have to deal with day to day problems of important shapes and colors. They watch the growth of plants, their shapes, proportions, color of flowers, foliage and fruit. If they want to achieve the proper effect, they should take into account the soil condition, the type of plants and the surrounding rocks, and finally, the conditions of light and shade. The gardener can not choose certain plants, giving preference to certain colors and popular with him. Since it would be a mistake to put a dark blue larkspur on brown background fence or yellow flowers against a white stone wall, because the background does not allow the color of the flowers sounded in full force. Compilers bouquets entirely dependent on the time of year and those colors that nature gives. Despite these limitations, the authors of flowers constantly have to find the right decisions objectively and not to rely in this case only on your own personal taste. Making wedding colors should be cheerful; in addition to the emotional red and pink tones in the bouquet may include any bright colors. For baptism no one comes to mind to choose purple, dark blue or dark green color, preference is given to bright, tender, – small flowers – white, blue, pink, light yellow with light green decorative sprigs. Florist, engaged in registration of the anniversary of a society will use bright large flowers in their colorful, festive and almost impersonal arrangements, including in their bouquets garland green leaves that all together gave the impression of a festive and power.
The owners of flower shops who have to serve a certain clientele succeed if they try to adapt to the tastes of their customers instead of imposing their own. When the shopper is looking for flowers of a certain color, the clerk needs to know what other colors can strengthen or weaken, or immediately necessary for the client to change the impression. Therefore, bright colors or other equally bright products should never be in sight of shoppers, for each color can have its effect on what they’re looking for. Note that for the same reason for the goods space, where especially their color is evaluated. should always be neutral colored in gray tones. Designers working in the textile industry must be familiar with the general objective laws of form and color. They have a few times a year is a new collection of fashionable color schemes. If the new fashion colors will be close to their own subjective preferences of color, then find the right colors and shades of the designers will be very easy, and their collections will be conclusive and will be successful. But if you fancy colors do not coincide with the subjective preferences of a designer, it will require enormous effort to create something that requires fashion.
If the color of personal likes or that the architect dominated by blue-gray tone, they prefer to endure residential and commercial premises in colors that they like. Customers who also impressed by the colors will be very satisfied, but the other tuned to orange or green, gray-blue room will seem unpleasant and these people will feel bad here. Recently it made to the architects made out large residential blocks rather monotonous. But you should know that only people with the corresponding color vision will live here with pleasure, and all the rest of these homes can cause even disgust. People who are sensitive to color them unsympathetic colors can provoke even mental disorders.