At first glance it may seem strange to equate the feeling of temperature, with visual perception of color. However, experiments have shown a difference in 3 … 4 degrees in the subjective sensation of heat or cold in the workshop, painted in cyan and studios, painted in red-orange. The blue-green room workers complained about the cold at a temperature of 15 ° C, while the red-orange room, they began to complain about the cold only at 11 … 12 ° C. Scientific studies have shown that the cyan decreases the blood flow momentum , while the red-orange stimulates it. Similar results were obtained in experiments with animals. Stable racehorses was divided into two parts, one of which was dyed in blue color, and the other – with red and orange. In the blue bay horse quickly calmed down after the races, and in red, on the contrary, for a long time to come to himself and did not cool down. In addition, there was no blue compartment flies, while in red were many. Both experiences show the special importance of the contrast of warm and cold for the colors. In hospitals, where color therapy is used, the properties of cold and warm colors play a very important role. Returning to the color wheel, we see that the yellow – the lightest and purple – the darkest.
This means that these two colors form the strongest contrast of light and darkness. At right angles to the axis of the “yellow – purple” arranged “red-orange” and “blue-green”, which are the two poles of the contrast of cold and heat. Red-orange, or red lead – the warmest, and blue-green, or manganese oxide – the coolest color. Typically, yellow, yellow-orange, orange, red-orange, red and red-violet are called warm colors, and yellow-green, green, blue-green, blue, blue-violet and purple – cold, but such a classification can easily enter us astray. In exactly the same as the polarity of white and black are the lightest and the darkest color, and all the gray tone is only a relatively bright or dark depending on whether they are contrasted with the darker or lighter tone, and a blue-green and red- orange as a polarity of heat and cold is always cold and warm, while the intermediate colors therebetween can be cold or warm just depending on whether they are contrasted with a warm or cold tones. The nature of cold and warm colors can be presented in such comparisons:
cold – warm
shadow – the sun
Transparent – opaque
calming – exciting
liquid – dense
Air – Earth
distant – close
wet – dry.
These different ways to show the contrast of cold and heat speak about his enormous expressive possibilities, allows for greater scenic and musical special general atmosphere of the work.
In nature more distant objects in the power of separating them from the air layer we always seem colder. The contrast of cold and warm also has the property to influence the feeling of closeness and distance image. And this quality makes it an essential tool in the transmission of visual perspectives and plastic feeling. If you want to create a composition-developed and rigorously sustained in terms of a particular contrast, all other contrast displays should be minor or not at all.
The contrast of cold and warm in its polar opposition of red-orange blue-green Figure 16 shows, as Figure 17 shows the same contrast, but with an altered area occupied by each color. Figures 18 and 19 are the same purple color, while in the upper figure surrounded by neighboring cold, it has a warm tone and surrounded by warm colors in the lower figure – cold. Figure 21 shows the transitions of red-orange color from the cold to the warm tone, and Figure 22 are given the same changes, but within the cyan.
The exercises with the contrast of cold and warm completely eliminated the contrast of light and dark, and all the colors included in the composition should be equally bright and equally dark. This modulation can be performed at any tone level, but the most favorable condition is the average lightness colors.
Changes in the color characteristics must not go beyond the four adjacent colors dvenadtsatichastnogo color wheel.
Exercise with a red-orange color may be applicable in addition to orange, yellow-orange, red and red-purple. Exercise with cyan may also be applicable to the green, yellow-green, blue and blue-violet.
If we want to reach the polar opposition of cold and warm in their highest manifestation, we must build a chromatic scale from cyan through the blue, blue-purple, red-purple, red to red-orange. This scale is, of course, can consist of more or less tonal steps. The chromatic number of cold-warm colors from yellow to orange-red may be suitable only if all colors are equal brightness yellow, otherwise you’ll have to deal with the contrast of light and dark.
These modulations achieve perfect beauty only in the absence of differences in brightness and darkness of colors used. While Figures 21 and 22 are chromatic modulation of cold and warm colors, the composition pattern 20 shows how through the contrast of cold and warm colors can achieve their maximum sound. The contrast of cold and warm can be considered the “sound” to other color contrasts. Thanks to him, opens the possibility of using color to convey the supreme music of the heavenly spheres. Grunewald used the contrast and color to create the foundations of “Choir of Angels”, and color palette of the other two scenes Izenheymskogo altar with the image of the angels in the heavens surrounding God the Father, in the composition with Mary, and in the scene of the Resurrection of Christ. Grunewald addressed this contrast when wanted to convey a sense of the divine. Abbot Shuger, sanctifying the first color stained the Church of St. Denis in Paris, addressed the congregation with the words of … “meaning that the material purpose of man is to grasp the essence of the highest immaterial matter.” Stained-glass windows and sparkling characters meant to understand it. Their magical glow was so full of mystery believers just felt otherworldly penetration through the glittering stained-glass windows. And the perception of stained-glass windows caused them a sense of belonging to the highest spirituality.
Stained glass windows of Chartres Cathedral, based on a symbolic combination of warm red and cool blue, breathing with the breathing rhythm of the sun. Because of the mobility of light, constantly changing along with the illumination of the sky and the angle of incidence of sunlight, the color of stained glass throughout the day constantly be different. And thanks to the transparent material of glass become effective radiance of precious stones. When Monet moved to landscape painting, he stopped writing his paintings in the studio and left entirely to nature. He began intensive study of the dependence of the state of the landscape-changing landscape of color relations in different seasons, the day and in different weather conditions. He tried to capture in his paintings shimmer of light in the air and the hot vapors of the earth, the light refraction of light in the clouds and the rising mist, multiple reflections coming from the calm surface of the water and the waves of light and shadow in the trees. It is to observe that the local color of objects depending on the light conditions or immersed in shadow, and from all sides reflective color rays acquire spotting, which is based primarily on the variation of warm and cold tones than just light and dark. In landscapes of Monet has finally been overcome traditional painting to the use of only the contrast of light and dark, his place is now occupied contrast warm cold.
The Impressionists discovered that the cool blue color of the sky and the air is constantly contrasted with the warm hues of sunlight, playing the role of the shadow colors. The charm of paintings by Monet, Pissarro and Renoir is often precisely in the extraordinary play of modulations of cold and warm tones.
Examples of the use of the contrast of cold and warm are:
Stained glass windows of Chartres Cathedral (XII century.); “A choir of angels” in Izenheymskom altar Matthias Grünewald (1475-1528), Colmar, Unterlinden Museum; “Moulin de la Galette” Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), Paris, Musée d’Orsay; “London Parliament in the Fog” by Claude Monet (1840-1926), Paris, Musée d’Orsay; “Apples and Oranges” by Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Paris, Musée d’Orsay.