7.7. Сolor spread сontrast

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Contrast color spread characterizes the dimensional relationships between two or more color planes. Its essence – the opposition between the “many” and “few”, “large” and “small”.

Colors can be assembled with each other spots of any size. But we would like to find out what the quantitative and spatial relationships between two or more colors can be considered balanced and under what conditions, none of them will stand out more than the other. Power of the impact of color is determined by two factors. Firstly, its brightness and, secondly, its resolution color plane. For. to determine the brightness or lightness of a color, you need to compare them to each other on a neutral gray background average lightness. Thus we see that the intensity and lightness of individual colors are different.

Goethe has established for this purpose a simple numerical ratio, very comfortable in our case. These ratios are approximate, but who will require accurate data, if a commercially available paint manufactured at different factories and sold under the same name, so much differ from each other? Ultimately, should decide the eye. In addition, the color areas in the picture are often fragmented and complex in shape, and it would be very difficult to bring them to a simple numerical relationship. Eye more trustworthy, but on condition that it has developed a sensitivity to color. In Goethe’s light intensity of different colors can be logged in the following ratios:

Yellow: 9

Orange: 8

Red: 6

Purple: 3

Blue: 4

Green: 6

We give lightness relations following pairs of complementary colors:

yellow: purple = 9: 3 = 3: 1 = 3/4: 1/4

Orange: blue = 8: 4 = 2: 1 2/3 = 1/3

red: green = 6: 6 = 1: 1 = 1/2: 1/2

If the harmonization of sizes of color planes to rely on the data, you must use the equivalent inverse ratio of light quantities. That is, yellow, being three times more, it should take only one third of the space occupied by its additional purple.


As shown in Figure 42 … 44 for harmonious relations planes filled with complementary colors, characterized by the following proportions:

yellow: purple = 1/4: 3/4

Orange: Blue = 1/3: 2/3

red: green = 1/2: 1/2

Thus, harmonious dimensions of the planes for the main and additional colors can be expressed by the following numeric expressions:

Yellow: 3

Orange: 4

Red: 6

Purple: 9

blue: 8

Green: 6


yellow: orange = 3: 4

yellow: Red = 3: 6

yellow: purple = 3: 9

yellow: blue = 3: 8

yellow: red: blue = 3: 6: 8

Orange: purple: green = 4: 9: 6

In a corresponding manner can be represented by all the other colors in their proportionate relationship between each other.

Figure 45 is represented by a circle of harmonious relations between the basic and complementary colors in their spatial characteristics. It is structured as follows:

– First, the entire range is divided into three equal parts, and then each of them in turn, again divided proportionally numerically two complementary colors:

– One-third of the circle for the yellow and purple is divided in the ratio of 1/4: 3/4;

– Another third to the orange and blue as the 1/3: 2/3,

– And the last third for red and green shows the ratio of 1/2: 1/2.

When these proportions are found, draws another circle of the same size, which, in accordance with the found proportions create a color range according to the sequence of the color wheel: yellow, orange, red, purple, blue and green. Sgarmonirovany in size color plane give the impression of calm and stability. Contrast color spread in this case is neutralized thanks to harmoniously composed color spots.

Presented here the system of quantitative relationships is effective only when using flowers in their maximum brightness. If you change it, and change the size of the corresponding color squares. Both factors – and the brightness, color and the size of the plane is very closely linked. Figure 46 red and green are given equal space ratios. Red and green as a complementary (additional) color, having equal spaces of his color field, create a sense of steady, strong harmony. But when the spatial relationships are violated, there is an irrational anxiety. If the color composition in place of harmonious spatial relationships between colors dominated by any one color, composition becomes particularly expressive activity. The specificity of selected ratios determined by the purpose, depending on the theme paintings, artistic flair and taste of the artist.

If a pronounced contrast to the spread of flowers they produce a completely new experience.

Figure 47 red presented in a very minimal amount. Green towards it occupies a huge area, and therefore the law of simultaneous contrast of red, in contrast, is starting to sound very bright.

In the section on simultaneous contrast, it was found that the eye requires a supplement to each given color. So far, the reason for this phenomenon is not clear. In all likelihood, we are subject to some general desire for balance and self-defense. This same tendency owes its special effects and the contrast distribution. Written in less and takes up less area, caught, so to speak, “in trouble”, the color responds, defending and produces relatively more memorable than if it was used in sgarmonirovany proportions, as shown in Figure 46. This is known as biology and gardeners. When a plant, an animal or a person as a result of the living conditions of heavy falls in distress in the same plants, animals and people wake up resistance forces, which in a happy coincidence, can achieve great results. If prolonged contemplation of the picture to focus their attention on any color that occupies a small area, then the color begins to appear more and more intense and exciting acts.

Through the use of two mutually reinforcing contrasts can give the picture an extraordinary liveliness and color a rare expression. It shows an exceptional feature of the contrast distribution – its ability to change and enhance the display of all other contrasts. The section on the contrast of light and dark, has said little about the color proportioning. But in reality it is only the contrast distribution in the full sense of a contrast ratio. If the composition based on the contrast of light and dark, a large part of the dark contrasts with less light, thanks to the opposition of a product can get in-depth special meaning. For example, in the painting of Rembrandt’s “Man with the Golden Helmet” chiaroscuro very small bright spot on his shoulder with a total volume of the head man inadvertently makes imbued with a sense of the special significance of the image. In the works of Mondrian’s compositional structures of strips of red, yellow and blue keep the overall size of paintings. And Brueghel in his painting “The Fall of Icarus” chiaroscuro blue-greenish-brown color of the landscape and disseminated in a small red-orange spots sleeves and collar plowman, already performs a different role, ensuring the integrity of the iconic painting. Matching the size of color planes at least as important to work on the paintings, as it is the choice of colors because each color composition should proceed and develop the relations between the color patches themselves. Shapes, sizes and shapes of color planes should be determined by the nature of color and its intensity, and does not prejudge the actual figure. Compliance with this rule is especially important to determine the color masses. Dimensions of color patches in any case can not be established by means of linear circuits, because these dimensions are determined only by the intensity of color, character color, its brilliance and power of influence, which largely depends on the contrast between colors. If the yellow stain should be allocated among the bright colors, it should occupy a much larger area than when the same spot is surrounded by dark tones. Here, only a small yellow spot, because its brightness is enhanced by the surroundings.

Similarly, the ratio of the masses of color should be built in accordance with the force of their impact.