The idea of the possible manifestations of the seven colors in its contrasts, which can be obtained from the previous sections of the book, now allows visually build a clear overall color system of the world as a whole. The picture shows dvenadtsatichastny color wheel, which is based on three basic colors – yellow, red and blue in their gradual transition from one to another. However, this scheme is insufficient for a comprehensive review of the entire color system. Instead of a circle is needed the same balloon that is already Philipp Otto Runge was introduced as the most appropriate form for ordering of color. Ball is a unit of volume and symmetrical form, can more fully express the diverse properties of color. It allows you to create a distinct idea of the law of complementary colors and demonstrate all the basic relationship between chromatic colors, as well as their interaction with the black and white. If we imagine the color transparent ball, at every point of which is a certain color, we soon will be able to present all the colors in their vzaimopodchinёnnosti. Each point of the ball can be determined by means of the meridian and its parallels. For a clear understanding of the color order, we need six and twelve meridians parallels.
On the surface of the ball we put six parallels equidistant from each other and forming the seven zones, and perpendicular to it, from pole to pole, holding 12 meridians. In the equatorial zone, in twelve equal sectors are all the pure colors dvenadtsatichastnogo color wheel. Polar zone covered with white at the top and black – in the bottom. Between the white and the equatorial area of each pure color series are two stage of its clarification. From the equatorial zone towards the dark pole, we also give to each pure color two, but now darkened stage. Since the twelve pure colors to vary in lightness, the steps toward the white and black colors should be calculated for each color separately. Pure yellow, for example, is very bright and so his two bleached tones are very close to each other, while both darkened – very far apart. Purple – the darkest of pure colors and shades brightened considerably distant from each other, while the blacked out – is very close. Each of the twelve colors must be brightened and darkened on the basis of its normal brightness, whereby each of twelve colors we obtain two parallel rings brightened and darkened colors. And each of these rings has a different tonal brightness. Thus, in the first zone lightening yellow is much brighter violet, i.e. in each zone twelve colors have the same Grace. Since the color ball can not be shown at the illustration in three dimensions, we have to project it onto the plane of a spherical surface. If you look at this ball on top, in the center we see the white zone, which lies between the two zones bleached shades, and half of the equatorial zone of pure colors. Looking at the color on the bottom of the ball, we will see in the center of a black area, then two adjoining darkened area and half of the equatorial part of the pure colors. To immediately see the entire surface of the color of the ball, we have to imagine a dark hemisphere is cut along the meridians and projected on a plane bleached tones. The result is a twelve-pointed star shown in Figure 48. In its center is white. The adjacent zone bleached tones followed by pure colors zone and two zones darkened with a black color at the end of the color rays star.
In Figure 49 we see the overall surface of the color of the ball. In its equatorial zone located pure color, which gradually brightens in two phases, and merge with the white belt. The same happens in the other “hemisphere”, where pure colors gradually darken in two steps and go black. Figure 50 illustrates a similar process on the back side of the ball and its entire surface thus becomes completely covered.
If we want to understand what is happening inside the ball, you have to make it cut. Figure 51 is given a horizontal sectional view of the color of the ball’s equator, where we observe a neutral gray area in the center and a ring of pure colors on the outer side. The two zones between pure colors are gray and dark tones blends of complementary colors. If we take two opposite colors of the equatorial zone, we get all the degrees of shading, which were presented in Figures 23 … 28 in the section of complementary colors. Similar cross-sections may be produced through any of the five zones of the ball.
In the center of the ball on its vertical axis from white to black pole is a series of gray tones. Our image is limited to seven steps of clarification and therefore the fourth stage of gray tones must correspond to the average gray tone between white and black, with the gray forms the middle of the ball. A similar gray color can be produced by mixing any two complementary colors. Figure 52 shows a vertical section of the color of the ball on the color zone red-orange – blue-green. In the equatorial part of the section on the left is cyan, and the right – the red-orange in their utmost intensity. Then, towards the central axis are two stages of the mixed variants, and all the equatorial chain as a whole is gradually lightened to white pole and obscured – to black. It should be noted that the color saturation is bleached and darkened steps should be equal and correspond to the gray tone of each of them. Exercises with color gradations in the horizontal and vertical sections of improving our understanding of color. The horizontal rows arranged solid colors in vertical given their graduation towards lightening and darkening. This systematization allows us to develop our sensitivity to color, both in terms of its perception and in terms of the sensations of degrees osvetljonnosti and blackout color. Color ball gives the opportunity to present:
– Pure color prisms arranged along the equator of the spherical surface;
– Additional steam mixed colors are located in horizontal cross sections;
– Mixtures of any pair of complementary colors, bleached white toward the pole and darkened toward black.
Suppose that we have a magnetic needle, is fixed in the center of the color of the ball. If we put an end to the arrow on any point of the ball, the other end of it will be sent to the symmetrical point and the color complementary to the first. If the end of the arrow will point to the second stage of the lightness of red color – namely, to pink, the other end of the arrow will point to the same stage darkened extra green. If we put an arrow on the end of the second stage darkened orange – namely, to brown, the other end of the needle will show us the second step of clarification of blue. Thus, we learn that not only is the opposite color, and degree of lightness are closely connected with each other.
Figure 53 shows the five main ways to move between two contrasting colors. If we want to work with a pair of complementary colors, such as orange and blue, and begin to look for colors that unite them, we must first locate these two colors on the color ball. Orange located on the equatorial line, will move to the red and then to purple, in one direction, and the other – to the yellow and green, turning blue. This – the horizontal movement of color options. But the same orange, following the meridian, will be combined with the blue light through the orange, white and light blue, in one direction, and in another – through a dark orange, black and dark blue. And it is – a vertical path of their relationship. If one follows from orange to blue color by the diameter of the ball, the two additional colors may be connected by a gray or other mixtures of blue and orange in the following order: gray-orange, gray and blue-gray.
And it is – a diagonal path of their interaction. The five main areas will be the shortest and the most simple lines connecting two additional (complementary) color. If we assume that this systematization eliminates all the difficulties in mastering the color, it is not. A world of color has incredible internal capabilities, the wealth which can only partly be reduced to elemental systematization. Each color is in itself a space. But here we must be content with a statement of its basic foundations.
Fig. 54, 55, 56 – example, yellow and purple, take two neighboring on purple: blue-purple and red-purple, or vice versa, lying next to yellow: yellow-green and yellow-orange, then these accords will also be harmonious in nature, although in this case the geometrical figure linking them, will now be an isosceles triangle as shown in Figure 54.
If the figures of triangles and isosceles and equilateral, imagine inscribed in the color circle, then moving them to the top of the inside of the circle as you wish, you can pinpoint a particular harmonious triad. Thus there are two border case when one of the vertices of the triangle is a white or black pole. If we use an equilateral triangle, one vertex of which is in contact with the white, the other two vertices will point to the first stage darkened pair of complementary colors. Then we, for example, we find a triad: white, shaded blue and green and orange darkened. If one of the peaks in contact with the black, then in this way we get black, bleached blue-green and bleached orange. These cases are convinced that using white or black to contrast the action of entering light and dark.
Four colors accord
If you select a range of dvenadtsatichastnogo two pairs of complementary colors, connecting lines are perpendicular to each other, we get a shape of a square, as shown in Figure 55. In this case, there are three chetverozvuchiya: yellow, red, orange, purple, blue and green; yellow-orange, red, blue, purple, green; orange, red, purple, blue, yellow-green.
Other four-color harmonies easy to identify thanks to the rectangular shape, which brings together two pairs of complementary colors such as: yellow-green, red-violet, yellow-orange, blue and purple; yellow, purple, orange, blue. The third figure for chetyrёhzvuchiya – trapezoid. Two colors are placed next to each other, and two opposite located right and left of their complementary colors. This combination of striving for a simultaneous change, though, and are harmonious, forming a mixture of gray and black. Inscribing the figures shown in Figure 55, in the color of the ball and turning, you can get a very large number of new color combinations.